Coach delivered relationship education programs for male high school students

About this review

This Intervention Review is primarily based on 0 systematic reviews and 3 primary studies.

The review draws on the best available impact evaluation evidence. The research was selected against set selection criteria and is based on a rigorous and comprehensive search and screening process. It does not necessarily reflect all evidence on the intervention, but further materials on this intervention are listed under References and further reading.

See the Prevention Evidence and Gap Map to explore similar interventions. For detail about the individual studies, see the Included studies section. For further information about the methods informing this review, please see the Intervention Review Technical Report (forthcoming).

Suggested citation: ANROWS. (2023). Coach-delivered healthy relationships education for male middle and high school student athletes.. Evidence Portal Intervention Review. ANROWS.

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Date Created: 03 August, 2023
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Snapshot

Intervention

Coach-delivered healthy relationships education for male middle and high school student athletes.

Key populations

Adolescent boys to prevent the perpetration of intimate partner violence, specifically adolescent relationship violence.

Outcomes studied

Behaviours, gender-based violence, and knowledge, beliefs and attitudes.

Impact of the intervention

From the 3 studies, 4 outcomes received an effectiveness rating on our Effectiveness Estimate Tool

Australian evidence

0 studies presented findings from Australia 0 studies reported on the experiences of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people

Risk of bias

Of the 3 studies, 2 received ratings of low or medium and 1 received a rating of high risk of bias as determined by our Risk of Bias tool

Intervention description

What are the key characteristics of the intervention?

Coach-delivered healthy relationships education aims to prevent adolescent boys from perpetrating intimate partner violence, specifically adolescent relationship violence.

Approaches target adolescent boys and generally follow a set program of approximately 12 weeks that focuses on healthy versus harmful relationship behaviours, disproving myths surrounding male sexual aggression, and promoting gender-equitable attitudes and positive bystander intervention.

The intervention is delivered by school athletic coaches who receive training and check-ins with violence prevention advocates, as well as a Coaches Kit with educational strategies, resources and lesson guides. All interventions are delivered face-to-face in school settings.

Where is the intervention set?

Primarily delivered in middle and secondary school settings.

How is the intervention delivered?

This intervention is primarily delivered by a professional athletic coach in a group format. It is usually delivered face-to-face.

How frequently is the intervention delivered?

Usually delivered in 12 weekly lessons of approximately 15 minutes each.

What resources and costs are involved?

0 studies comment on costs associated with the intervention.

Theory of change

How is the intervention designed or theorised to work?

The intervention builds on social change theory to increase bystander behaviours by engaging athletic coaches as positive role models to deliver violence prevention strategies and tools to young male student athletes.

Impact

This section speaks to the effectiveness of the studies.

The outcomes measured by the included studies include gender-based violence (specifically intimate partner violence and non-partner sexual violence), attitudes and knowledge (towards gender-based violence and sexual assault) and bystander intervention.

Two studies with very low, low, or moderate risk of bias with appropriate outcome data were used for the effectiveness estimates. The outcomes that these studies measured are intimate partner violence, attitudes towards gender-based violence, knowledge about sexual assault, and bystander intentions to intervene.


✅ = Most systematic reviews and studies show effectiveness
🟢 = Most studies show effectiveness
🟨= Most systematic reviews and studies show no effect
🟡 = Most studies show no effect
⛔= Potentially harmful
🔵 = Mixed evidence
✖ = Insufficient causal evidence
🕓 = Not yet rated

Effectiveness rating
Outcome
Description

Attitudes towards gender-based violence

Exercise caution! Potential for increased negative attitudes towards gender-based violence. One study showed a statistically significant negative effect for attitudes towards gender-based violence.

Bystander intention to intervene

Exercise caution! Potential for decreased bystander intention to intervene. One study showed a statistically significant negative effect for bystander intention to intervene.

IPV

Exercise caution! Potential for increased IPV. One study showed a statistically significant negative effect for IPV.

Key populations

Has the impact of this intervention been tested with certain key populations?

This review assessed the impact of the evaluation on adolescent boys to prevent intimate partner violence, specifically adolescent relationship violence, perpetration.

The interventions were not targeted towards any specific cultural or ethnic groups. The interventions were not targeted towards people with physical or mental disabilities or health conditions.

The table below gives an overview of whether or not the intervention was examined with some key populations. The inclusion of these populations was guided by the National Plan to End Violence against Women and Children 2022-2032 and the Australian National Research Agenda to End Violence against Women and Children: 2023-2028.

🔴 = no studies
🟡 = at least 1 study mentions that population, but effectiveness wasn't tested with that population
🟢 = at least 1 study tests effectiveness with the population

Population What do we know about this group? Degree of knowledge
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities

0 studies. The appropriateness of this intervention with this population has not yet been established. Therefore, we cannot confirm the applicability of this intervention to this population.

Sexuality and gender diverse / LGBTIQA+

0 studies. The appropriateness of this intervention with this population has not yet been established. Therefore, we cannot confirm the applicability of this intervention to this population.

Specific age groups (including older people, children and young people)

All studies were conducted with teenage participants. One study used slightly younger (middle school) participants, while the others used participants in high school (14-18 years)

Culturally and racially marginalised (CARM) groups

0 studies. The appropriateness of this intervention with this population has not yet been established. Therefore, we cannot confirm the applicability of this intervention to this population

Migrants and refugees

0 studies. The appropriateness of this intervention with this population has not yet been established. Therefore, we cannot confirm the applicability of this intervention to this population

People with disability

0 studies. The appropriateness of this intervention with this population has not yet been established. Therefore, we cannot confirm the applicability of this intervention to this population

Key considerations

This section summarises factors that may contribute to study results, factors that may be considered to facilitate better outcomes, and the transferability of the intervention to an Australian context.

What do we know about the intervention in Australia?

What should Australian stakeholders consider?

Included studies

Characteristics of primary studies included in the Intervention Review
Study and location Design Intervention Sample Outcome categories
Abebe et al. (2017); Jones (2021); Miller et al. (2020) United States Randomised controlled trial
Comparison: No treatment
Qualitative data: No
Coaching Boys into Men, educational program
Duration and format: 12 weekly 15-minute lessons
Setting: High school/middle school
N=973
Adolescent boys
Behaviours, Gender-based violence, and Knowledge, beliefs and attitudes
Jaime et al. (2016) United States Randomised controlled trial
Comparison: No treatment
Qualitative data: No
Coaching Boys into Men, educational program
Duration and format: 12 weekly 15-minute lessons
Setting: High school/middle school
N=193
Adolescent boys
Behaviours, Gender-based violence, and Knowledge, beliefs and attitudes
Jones (2021); Miller et al. (2012; 2013) United States Randomised controlled trial
Comparison: No treatment
Qualitative data: No
Coaching Boys into Men, educational program
Duration and format: 12 weekly 15-minute lessons
Setting: High school/middle school
N=2,006
Adolescent boys
Behaviours, Gender-based violence, and Knowledge, beliefs and attitudes

References and further reading

Included Studies

Quantitative impact evaluations:

Additional evidence on the intervention

This list contains other evidence that was not eligible for the Intervention Review based on our selection criteria but may provide further information regarding the intervention.